Rutherford Hayes was the first president to take the oath of office in the White House. He also was responsible for removing political patronage from the Civil Service by issuing an executive order prohibiting civil servants from promoting parties or managing campaigns.
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born to Sophia in 1822. His father, and namesake, died 2 months before Rud, as his mother called him, was born. Sophia was had mixed feelings about Rud, because to her, he was a sickly, feeble boy and she feared he too would not survive.
Young Rutherford and sister Fanny Arabella were raised by their mother and her younger bachelor brother Sardis Birchard. He was a successful businessman in Lower Sandusky (later Fremont), Ohio. Hayes attended school in Delaware and Norwalk, Ohio, and Middletown, Connecticut. In 1842, Hayes graduated from Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, valedictorian of his class. After a year of study in a Columbus law office, he entered Harvard Law School and received his degree in 1845. He began his law practice in Lower Sandusky. Not finding many opportunities there, he left in 1849 for Cincinnati, where he became a successful lawyer. His opposition to slavery drew him into the Republican Party.
In 1852, Rutherford married Lucy Ware Webb of Chillicothe. She was the youngest daughter of Dr. James and Maria Cook Webb and a graduate of Cincinnati's Wesleyan Women's College. She was the first wife of a president to graduate from college. They became the parents of 8 children.
When the Civil War began, Hayes offered his services to the state of Ohio. Governor William Dennison appointed him to the rank of major in the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry which mustered first at Goodale Park in Columbus and then when Camp Chase was completed, they finished their training their. He saw much active service, rising to the rank of major general. He was severely wounded on September 14, 1862, at the Battle of South Mountain. In 1864, while still in the army, he was elected to Congress. Hayes did not take his seat until the Union had won the war. He was reelected in 1866. The following year Ohio voters elected him governor.
After his second term, Hayes retired in 1872 and moved to Fremont in 1873. After winning a third term in 1875, the Republican Party chose Hayes as its presidential candidate. He won the 1876 election only after the creation of a special commission to decide disputed electoral votes. Because of the tension surrounding his election, Hayes secretly took the oath of office on Saturday, March 3, 1877, in the Red Room of the White House.
By 1877 it was clear that the nation's voters were no longer willing to use the army to protect the civil rights of the freedmen. Because a hostile Congress refused to provide adequate funds, Hayes reassigned the few remaining troops guarding two Southern statehouses. Before doing so, however, he extracted promises from southern leaders that they would protect African Americans in their political, economic, and civil rights. He hoped these actions would heal the wounds left by the Civil War. In November of 1871 President Hayes, a great fan of opera, requested that Marie Selika to perform in the Green Room at the White House, becoming the first black artist ever to perform in the White House. A year later, Lucy Hayes would attend one of Marie's concerts at St. Luke's Protestant Church in Washington which was also attended by Frederick Douglass, the man responsible for introducing Selika to the President and his wife.
His sound money policies helped make business and industry stronger. He initiated civil service reform, aimed at ending patronage, and appointed men with sound qualifications to government positions. He also signed a bill that, for the first time, allowed women attorneys to appear before the U.S. Supreme Court.
The President continued his concerns about minorities, the poor, and immigrants. He believed education and manual training could help all people achieve better lives. Hayes' honesty and fairness renewed respect for the presidential office. Honoring his commitment not to accept a second term, Hayes retired to his beautiful home, Spiegel Grove, in Fremont, Ohio. Here, Hayes continued to give of his time helping veterans to receive their pensions, improving conditions in prisons, and promoting universal education. He died at Spiegel Grove January 17, 1893, at the age of 70.